Indian Queenless Ant

Indian Queenless Ant

Indian Queenless Ant
Indian Queenless Ant

Here is a capture of Weaver Ant (Oecophylla smaragdina) workers killing a Indian Queenless Ant, also known as Lesser Striated Bispinous Ant (Diacamma indicum). These Diacamma indicum ants are native to the Indian subcontinent. Since Diacamma species forage individually and they don’t have a queen in their colony they are also called Indian queenless ant. Diacamma workers are highly distinctive and are easily identified by the presence of deep striate sculpturing, deep pits (gemmal pits) on the sides of the mesosoma, and a petiole which has two spine. This was captured with Tamron SP 90mm F/2.8 Di MACRO 1:1 VC USD on Canon EOS 80D camera and Godox Ving V860c E-TTL Li-ion Flash with modified softbox.

Indian Queenless Ant
Indian Queenless Ant

Indian queenless ants do not have a queen, but have a gamergate. A gamergate is a mated worker ant that is able to reproduce sexually, i.e. lay fertilized eggs that will develop as females. In gamergate species, all workers in a colony have similar reproductive potentials, but only one or a few top-ranking workers can mate (usually with foreign males) and produce eggs. The term “gamergate” here is not “gamer-gate” but “gam-ergate” and derives from the Greek words gámos and ergátes and means “married worker”.

There are 100–200 different species in which gamergates reproduce (roughly 1% of all ants), most of which fall within the poneromorph subfamilies. Whereas workers (which are all females) in most ant species are morphologically incapable of storing sperm, in gamergate species one or several workers mate and have active ovaries. Gamergate lifespan is short compared to queens in queenright colonies, but gamergates can be replaced by other dominant workers in the colony without risking colony survival. Reproductive investment in gamergate females is thus optimized because non-differentiated gamergates (i.e. reproductively inactive workers) function as laborers.

Indian Queenless Ant
Indian Queenless Ant

Within gamergate colonies all workers are born reproductively viable and are thus potential gamergates. Prior to differentiation as a gamergate, a dominant worker must physically inhibit its sisters. For example, in the case of Diacamma indicum shown above, the first female to become reproductively active will clip off the thoracic gemmae of her sisters. This mutilation greatly reduces their sexual attractiveness. In other genera, persistent domination of worker females by gamergates via physical aggression all but ensure that they will not produce male offspring.

In Diacamma nilgiri gamergates use dominance interactions to monopolize reproduction without mutilation of sister workers. For most gamergate species, the start of ovarian activity eliminates the need to physically dominate nestmate workers. Instead newly produced pheromones or signaling chemicals ensure that workers remain nonreproductive. Although it is unknown to what degree these chemicals act as pheromones or as signals, support for the signaling hypothesis can be found in the loss of reproductive inhibition of workers as the gamergate grows older and her fecundity diminishes.

Indian Queenless Ant
Indian Queenless Ant

When a gamergate dies, it is usually replaced by a formerly submissive worker who proceeds to mate and begins ovarian activity. A new gamergate often originates from a younger cohort. Because reproductively inactive workers are able to activate their ovaries after the death of the gamergate, some gamergate species can be considered cooperative breeders rather than truly eusocial insects.

EXIF info - Aperture : ƒ/13 | Camera : Canon EOS 80D | Taken : 29 May, 2016 | Flash fired : no | Focal length : 90mm | ISO : 400 | Location : 13° 4.0311′ 0″ N 74° 59.7279′ 0″ E | Shutter speed : 1/80s | Images and content Copyright © Krishna Mohan. Please contact me to purchase prints or for image publication license.
EXIF info - Aperture : ƒ/13 | Camera : Canon EOS 80D | Taken : 29 May, 2016 | Flash fired : no | Focal length : 90mm | ISO : 400 | Location : 13° 4.0311′ 0″ N 74° 59.7279′ 0″ E | Shutter speed : 1/80s | Images and content Copyright © Krishna Mohan. Please contact me to purchase prints or for image publication license.
EXIF info - Aperture : ƒ/13 | Camera : Canon EOS 80D | Taken : 29 May, 2016 | Flash fired : no | Focal length : 90mm | ISO : 400 | Location : 13° 4.0311′ 0″ N 74° 59.7279′ 0″ E | Shutter speed : 1/80s | Images and content Copyright © Krishna Mohan. Please contact me to purchase prints or for image publication license.
EXIF info - Aperture : ƒ/13 | Camera : Canon EOS 80D | Taken : 29 May, 2016 | Flash fired : yes | Focal length : 90mm | ISO : 400 | Location : 13° 4.0311′ 0″ N 74° 59.7279′ 0″ E | Shutter speed : 1/80s | Images and content Copyright © Krishna Mohan. Please contact me to purchase prints or for image publication license.

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